Memorization of the essential concepts

  1. Chart visualization. In order to memorize the synoptic chart that was prepared it will be necessary to pay attention to it between two and five minutes, depending on the size of the chart, focusing on the number of elements at each level, the way they are displayed, how many levels are in the chart… In other words, paying attention to detail. Cover up the chart and try to reproduce it on paper next. If the trial was successful, move to the next phase. If not, repeat the process.
  2. Repeating out loud the summary. First divide the summary text in small pieces that can be studied independently, one after the other. This can be done by questions or by paragraphs. Next, read out loud or in silence the first piece three times in a row; then cover up the text and try to repeat it without looking at it. Then check if it was right; it successful, move to the second piece. If not, repeat three more times and check again. When you have learnt three pieces by heart it is a good idea to go back to the start and check if the first ones are still remembered. You will need to read again some of them if they were forgotten. Finally the same process will be followed with each of the three studied pieces.
  3. Review. What was learnt on day one will not be of any use if it is not reviewed the next day, then after five or six days, then once a week and, finally, the day before the exam. TO REVIEW means to perform a quick read and then start checking piece by piece it you are able to correctly repeat the text that was studied. If anything was forgotten, it is necessary to study it again following points 6 and 7.

Tips to improve your writing skills

Making the strange more familiar

Example: Compare the economic administration of a country to the administration of a home. Then, the students need to try to understand why a country increases its foreign debt.

Making the familiar more strange

This means to distort, reverse or transpose the everyday ways to see and respond that make the world a safe and familiar place (making things “out of focus”). There are four mechanisms to achieve this objective:

Personal analogy. Faraday “scrutinizing… in the very heart of the electrolyte, trying to make its atoms game visible to his mental eyes” (Tyndall).

Direct analogy. Alexander Graham Bell said: “It was curious to me that the bones of the human ear were so thick, compared to the delicate and feeble wall that makes them act, and so it occurred to me that if such a delicate wall could move bones relatively thick, why a thicker bigger piece of membrane would not be able to move my piece of steel. And so the telephone was conceived “.

The forced comparison of a scientific observation with that of another field tends to impose a fresh expression to a problem.

Symbolic analogy. Unlike personal analogy, here objective and impersonal images are used to describe the problem. These images, though technically inexact, are aesthetically satisfactory. Symbolic analogy is a very concise, almost poetic, statement of the implications of a selected key word of the problem analyzed or that is related to the problem.

Example: (a) zipper –safe intermittence; (b) mixture – balanced confusion; (c) acid – impure aggressor; etc.

Fantastic analogy. Ideal, though probably not applicable, solutions are proposed.


Statements like this one: what would happen if Earth was square-shaped? Or what if there was no gravity?


You can present incomplete paragraphs for the student to complete them freely. Examples:

* People travel abroad for many reasons… (the student has to complete the paragraph)

* Peru´s economy would improve if …. (the student has to complete the paragraph)


Request students to create a title to a paragraph (that was read or heard).

You can also request them to relate some personal experience and place it suggestive titles.


It consists in applying several questions around the title of the topic. The following questions are suggested: