Invocation of what was studied

Taking exams. Very often the best way to prove that something has been learnt is through exams. They usually not represent a problem if study was performed correctly although it is advisable to take some precautions:

  • Read the questions carefully in order to correctly understand them.
  • Mentally try to position the required concepts in the synoptic chart previously built.
  • Try to answer using well-built and understandable phrases.
  • It is necessary to explain any technical words being used and, if possible, provide examples. It is a good method to imagine that you are explaining the concept to an alien who does not know anything. Do not make the mistake of thinking that the teacher already knows it all.
  • Make use of all the available time and use any spare time to review.
  • Take the exam with enthusiasm: use good handwriting, cleanliness, do not make corrections, use the appropriate margins, use a ruler to underline the important phrases or concepts.

Even though it might be obvious I want to point out that study is not something to be left for one or two days before the exam but it is an activity that has to be performed as the class is progressing.

It is possible that some of the activities proposed in the orientation guide are challenging at first. Nonetheless, it is worth it to keep on practicing and, if necessary, use any other articles or books about charts or summaries.

More exercises for class


Let the student explore and search consciously the variables to be considered before reaching a decision or solving a problem:

Example 1: A young married couple decides to buy a table. They go to a furniture shop and, without thinking much of it, they decide to buy one of American colonial style they liked. When they come home with the table, they realize that it does not fit through the door, nor the window, nor the balcony.

What do you think happened to this couple? Why did they reach that situation?

Cases as this are frequent in daily life. What conclusion do you make of the example?

How could the problem of the couple have been avoided?

Example 2: What variables need to be considered to plan for a field trip?

Example 3: What variables need to be considered to watch television?


Anticipate what could happen, in the short and long terms.

Problem 1: Consider the immediate and medium-term consequences, of the invention of the gas engine.

Problem 2: What could be the short and long-term consequences of using computers in education activities?


Direct attention to what you wish to accomplish and clarify the intention of actions and thoughts.

Problem 1: During a discussion on the problem of cost of life increase, different statements arise from groups of housewives, supermarket owners, the government, farmers and food processing plant owners. Which could be the main objectives of each of the groups in the discussion?

Tips to improve your writing skills

Making the strange more familiar

Example: Compare the economic administration of a country to the administration of a home. Then, the students need to try to understand why a country increases its foreign debt.

Making the familiar more strange

This means to distort, reverse or transpose the everyday ways to see and respond that make the world a safe and familiar place (making things “out of focus”). There are four mechanisms to achieve this objective:

Personal analogy. Faraday “scrutinizing… in the very heart of the electrolyte, trying to make its atoms game visible to his mental eyes” (Tyndall).

Direct analogy. Alexander Graham Bell said: “It was curious to me that the bones of the human ear were so thick, compared to the delicate and feeble wall that makes them act, and so it occurred to me that if such a delicate wall could move bones relatively thick, why a thicker bigger piece of membrane would not be able to move my piece of steel. And so the telephone was conceived “.

The forced comparison of a scientific observation with that of another field tends to impose a fresh expression to a problem.

Symbolic analogy. Unlike personal analogy, here objective and impersonal images are used to describe the problem. These images, though technically inexact, are aesthetically satisfactory. Symbolic analogy is a very concise, almost poetic, statement of the implications of a selected key word of the problem analyzed or that is related to the problem.

Example: (a) zipper –safe intermittence; (b) mixture – balanced confusion; (c) acid – impure aggressor; etc.

Fantastic analogy. Ideal, though probably not applicable, solutions are proposed.


Statements like this one: what would happen if Earth was square-shaped? Or what if there was no gravity?


You can present incomplete paragraphs for the student to complete them freely. Examples:

* People travel abroad for many reasons… (the student has to complete the paragraph)

* Peru´s economy would improve if …. (the student has to complete the paragraph)


Request students to create a title to a paragraph (that was read or heard).

You can also request them to relate some personal experience and place it suggestive titles.


It consists in applying several questions around the title of the topic. The following questions are suggested: